DNA testing is also known as a genetic test used for identifying changes in chromosome structure or DNA sequence. Genetic testing includes measuring genetic changes results, such as
RNA analysis. It serves as an output of gene expression.
Biochemical analysis. It measures specific protein output.
Genetic testing is available in two different types: legal and non-legal DNA testing.
What is DNA testing?
DNA testing is a medical test type that identifies changes in proteins, genes, and chromosomes. The genetic test results help determine the chance of the person to develop or pass a genetic disorder or confirm or rule out the suspected genetic condition. DNA testing involves checking for changes in:
Chromosomes. Chromosomal genetic tests examine the whole long lengths of DNA or chromosomes to see if there are large genetic changes, like an extra copy of a chromosome that causes a genetic condition.
Genes. Gene tests examine DNA sequences to identify variations in genes causing or increasing the risk of a genetic disorder. The gene tests can be:
Large or narrow in scope
Analyzing individual DNA building block
One or more genes
All person’s DNA
Proteins. The biochemical genetic tests will study the activity level or amount of enzymes or proteins; abnormalities in either indicate modifications to the DNA outcome in a genetic disorder.
DNA testing is voluntary. Testing has benefits and limitations as well as risks. The decision about whether to be tested is a complex or personal one. A genetic counselor or geneticist helps by giving info about the pros and cons of the test and discussing the emotional and social aspects of testing.
Is DNA testing legal?
Yes, DNA testing can be legal with the consent of the parents. The father or the mother must have consent before DNA testing is performed. Once they don’t agree on it, probably it falls under a non-legal DNA test. However, if the consent of both mother and father is given, then it is all legal DNA tests.
The uses of DNA testing
DNA testing provides information about the genetic background of the baby or the person. The three major uses of DNA testing include:
Newborn screening. It is used after both to identify the genetic disorders treated in life.
Diagnostic testing. Identifying or ruling out chromosomal or genetic conditions is performed for diagnostic testing. DNA testing is used for confirming a diagnosis when a particular condition is suspected, according to the physical signs and symptoms.
Carrier testing. It is used for identifying people who carry one copy of the gene mutation that causes a genetic disorder. It is a testing type offering individuals with a family history of genetic disorders and people in certain ethnic groups with an increased risk of genetic conditions.